‘Scholars’ Banquet’ and the ‘Hero’ (Pawo) lineage

The young 11th Pawo Rinpoche, with 17th Karmapa and Tsewang Rinpoche at Tsurphu, Tibet (1994)

Yesterday, I was delighted to watch a documentary film, The Lion Begins to Roar, about the 17th Karmapa’s early life in Tsurphu Monastery, Tibet. In the film, there is a wonderful section on the recognition and life of a young tulku, 11th Pawo Rinpoche born 1993 (gtsug lag bstan ‘dzin kun bzang chos kyi nyi ma) (dpa’ bo: literally means ‘hero’) who was the first tulku to be recognized by the 17th Karmapa in Tibet, in 1994.

Evidence of reincarnation with remarkable treasure discovery by 11th Pawo Rinpoche in Tibet, 1998

11th Pawo with ‘sacred stones’ from the treasure dig in Tibet, 1998

As you can see from the video (from 3.13 mins onwards), there is an extraordinary account of how, in 1998, when walking on the slope of a mountain near the monastery, the young tulku Pawo suddenly demanded that the monks stop and start digging in a particular place. As he was very young, only four years old at the time, he monks were not sure what to do and asked him if it was really necessary or important, as the Tibetan soil is very rocky, but the young boy insisted the digging commence. The monks started to dig and after the third day of digging, to almost a metre and a half in depth, some special items were discovered. These items were treasures buried by a previous incarnation of Pawo Rinpoche. They included a gold coin, a piece of silver, a red coral, an agate stone, a white conch shell, and two other special stones. On the first day of digging, Pawo Rinpoche told the monks that they would find these stones.  Several of his previous incarnations were great treasurer-revealers of the Nyingma tradition. He is one of the Gyalwa Yabsedun (the seven heart-sons of Karmapa).

The former Bokar Rinpoche is interviewed in the film and says:

“In general there are many reasons and purposes for reincarnation. To my mind, there is a principle reason. In our Buddhist tradition, there exist pas and future lives. Specigically in the reincarnation of Lamas there is a continuum between past and future births. The truth of the continuum is revealed by its marks and identification. In the case of Pawo Rinpoche, he revealed the same treasure hidden by his previous incarnation, Pawo Trow Gyamtso. Therefore, the young reincarnation of Pawo Rinpoche has memory of the deeds of his previous life. Thus, he is the true reincarnation. The body disappears yet the essence of the mind remains the same. Because of our dullness and mistaken perceptions, we have doubt and hold wrong views about karma and reincarnation. Thus the story of the treasure revealer generates belief. These days, people’s minds are afflicted and doubtful. To dispel those afflictions. Pawo Rinpoche took an unmistakable rebirth. From this, we Buddhists truly believe in reincarnation.”

Another Rinpoche in the film, give more detail about the two special stones and a conch shell. “One of the stones is connected to Guru Rinpoche, the other to the Shakyamuni Buddha. One of the stones is in the shape of a bird. Pawo Rinpoche wrapped the rest of the treasures in a red cloth and then put a white scarf around the cloth and offered it to the protector of his lineage, Mahakala Bernagchen. He said the protectors would not be pleased to expose it now so he placed them inside a locked glass case in the protectors’ shrine room.”

An astonishing recollection indeed.  It reminded me of other significant evidence there has been of children remembering their former lives, such as one boy who pointed to the exact place his body had been buried (he had previously been murdered) and to the location and identity of the murderer![1]

In any case, this lovely account and video, inspired me to do a little research on the Pawo lineage, which although less well-known than the other Karmapa’s heart-son lineages in nonetheless an important one. This post pulls together some of the current information available on the Pawo Rinpoches (in particular, the 1st, 2nd and 10th Pawos) and also to give some information and analysis of the 2nd Pawo Rinpoche’s major historical work, Scholar’s Banquet which despite its valuable information, has not been translated or studied in extensive detail in the English language.

The 10th and 11th Pawo Rinpoches

The seat of the early Pawo incarnations was a monastery called Lhalung (lha lung) and at Sekhar Gutog (sras mkhar dgu thog), the former residence of Marpa the translator (for more on Sekhar and some scripts that Marpa hid there, tsee here. Now it is the monastery of Nenang (gnas nang) located in the same Tolung (stod lung) valley as the Karmapa’s Tsurphu (mtshur phu) monastery.

10th Pawo Rinpoche – teacher of 16th Karmapa

10th Pawo Rinpoche

The 10th Pawo Rinpoche (1912–1991, gtsug lag smra ba’i dbang phyug) passed away in Kathmandu/Nepal in 1991.  The 10th Pawo, Tsuglag Mawey Wangchuk, lived from 1912 to 1991. He was recognised by Khakyab Dorje, 15th Gyalwang Karmapa. After completing the traditional education of a reincarnate lama followed by a period of meditative retreat, he became one of the teachers of Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa. Pawo Rinpoche fled Tibet during the uprising against Chinese Communist rule in 1959, travelling to Bhutan and then onto Kalimpong in India. At the request of the Dalai Lama, Pawo Rinpoche served as an instructor at the Sanskrit University in Varanasi from 1962 until 1966. In 1975, he travelled in Western countries, establishing his Western seat in France where he lived permanently (1978–1986). In 1986 he established a new Nenang, Nénang Püntsok Monastery (Wylie: gnas nang phun tshogs chos gling), near Boudhanath in Nepal, where he resided for the remainder of his life. He composed a short Milarepa Guru Yoga, which has been translated into English here.

11th Pawo Rinpoche

As mentioned above, the present 11th incarnation was found and recognized in Tibet by the present 17th Karmapa in 1994. He was enthroned at Nenang Monastery near Lhasa in 1995, and given the name Tsuglag Tenzin Künsang Chökyi Nyima or Tsuglag Mawey Drayang.  Following the 17th Karmapa’s escape to India in 2000, aided by a monk from Nenang, reports surfaced that, in reprisal, the child Pawo had been removed for a while from his monastery and that his religious education had been restricted.

I have been told that this ‘monk from Nenang’ is the greatly respected Tsewang Rinpoche who was appointed as Abbot of Nenang Monastery at the request of the Tenth Kyabje Pawo Rinpoche. Years later, Tsewang Rinpoche was appointed by HH 17th Karmapa to lead the secret search for the reincarnation of the late Kyabje Pawo Rinpoche. The yangsi was found and later enthroned at his main seat, Nenang Monastery. Due to his tireless efforts in rebuilding the 600 year old Nenang Monastery as well as establishing a new retreat centre, a shedra, an orphanage and building up the Sangha in general this exceptional monk was granted the honorific title of Nenang Lama.

Tsewang Rinpoche (the Nenang lama) with HH 17th Karmapa and HH 14th Karmapa in India after his escape from Tibet
HH 17th Karmapa and Tsewang Rinpoche

Furthermore, as a result of this “significant and extraordinary appointment” Tsewang Rinpoche found himself almost a decade later, in concert with Karmapa’s trusted Tsurphu confidante Lama Nyima, to be in a unique position to secretly plan and organise the successful escape of HH Karmapa to India in the year 2000. Rinpoche escaped along with 17th Karmapa while Lama Nyima, who remained behind, was confined to prison by his captors. The latter since his release has gone on to live a life of seclusion in retreat whereas the ‘Nenang Lama’ has continued to expand his Dharma activities since moving to live in the United States in 2002. He has since established the Danang Foundation in 2006 and later in 2010 the Tibetan Buddhist Centre in Flushing, New York from where he unceasingly engages in Dharmic activities with the same diligence and humility as displayed whilst risking his life in service to the Pawo Lineage and the 17th Karmapa back in Tibet.

The 11th Pawo Rinpoche, Tibet

Here is a video of another ‘hero’ Tsewang Rinpoche talking about the 17th Karmapa’s dramatic and dangerous escape from Tibet in 1999:

The 1st Pawo Rinpoche (1440-1503) – crazy yogi, roaring like a lion

The first Pawo, Chowang Lhundrup, (1440–1503, chos dbang lhun grub) was born in 1440 in the Yarlung Valley of Ü-Tsang and was a disciple of the 7th Karmapa.  According to his Treasury of Lives bio:

“Little is known of his life. He received novice vows (dge tshul) and transmissions of Mahāmudrā and the Six Dharmas of Nāropa (naro’i chos drug), and the name Chowang Lhundrub from a teacher who is unnamed in the biographies. He later became a disciple of the Seventh Karmapa, Chodrak Gyatso (karma pa 07 chos grags rgya mtsho, 1453-1506).

He is said to have publicly displayed magical abilities, such as an event at Zang Lake (zangs mtsho) where he walked on water and subjugated the local deity of the lake. It is said that the nearby villagers who witnessed this were so overawed that they gave him the name “hero” (dpa’ bo), which came to serve as the title of his incarnation line.

At some point a disciple offered him the temple of Sekhar Gutok (sras mkhar dgu thog), the site of the famous tower built by Milarepa (mi la ras pa, 1040-1123) in Lhokha (lho kha). Chowang Lhundrub initially declined to accept, but eventually took control when the Seventh Karmapa instructed him to make it the base of his religious activities. He restored the temple and built a meditation retreat center (sgrub sde) on the mountain Orgyen Dechen (o rgyan bde chen).

Chowang Lhundrub was a strong renunciate and is said to have behaved in a manner consistent with the “crazy yogis” of the Kagyu tradition. He is said sometimes to have acted like a child or a madman, crawling on four legs while roaring like a lion.”

2nd Pawo Rinpoche (1504-1566) – author of A Scholar’s Feast

2nd Pawo Rinpoche, Tsuglag Threngwa

The second Pawo, Pawo Tsuglag Threngwa (1504–1566 , gtsug lag phreng ba), was the “moon-like” disciple of Mikyo Dorje, 8th Karmapa, as well as a famous author of historical, philosophical and astrological texts.  According to his Treasury of Lives bio:

“In 1508, at the age of five he was identified by Genyen Chelungpa (dge bsnyen che lung pa, d.u.) as the reincarnation of the First Pawo, Chowang Lhundrub. He was then escorted to and enthroned to seat of the lineage, Sekhar Gutok (sras mkhar dgu thog), the tower that Milarepa famously built at his master Marpa Chokyi Lodro’s command.

At the age of twenty-nine, while on his way to Kongpo, Mipam Chokyi Gyatso had an audience of the Eighth Karmapa, Mikyo Dorje (ka rma pa 08 mi bskyod rdo rje, 1507-1554) at Zingpo Bumpa Gang (zing po bum pa sgang). He and the Karmapa exchanged teachings and empowerments, and the Karmapa gave him the name Pel Tsuklak Trengwa (dpal gtsug lag phreng ba).

At some point he established a second monastic seat, Lhalung Monastery (lha lung dgon). [Although other accounts state that this was originally founded by the 1st Karmapa, Dusum Khyenpa, in 1154, and it was given to Pawo Rinpoche.] This remained the seat of the Pawo line of incarnations until 1673 or 1674, when the Fifth Pawo, Trinle Gyatso (dpa’ bo 05 ‘phrin las rgya mtsho, 1649/1650-1699) moved to Nenang Monastery (gnas nang dgon), also in Lhodrak, which had been founded by the First Zhamar, Drakpa Sengge (grags pa seng+ge, 1283-1349) in 1333. The monastery was given to him by the Fifth Dalai Lama, who confiscated it from the Seventh Zhamar, Yeshe Nyingpo (zhwa dmar 07 ye shes snying po, 1631-1694). It is not clear what happened to Sekhar during that time.

Following the death of the Eighth Karmapa in 1554, Tsuklak Trengwa went to Lhokha Yarlung and supervised the traditional cremation with rites and rituals according to Kagyu tradition. He also enthroned the Fifth Zhamar, Konchok Yanlag (zhwa dmar 05 dkon mchog yan lag, 1525-1583) as the Karmapa’s successor as leader of the Karma Kagyu tradition.

After the confirmation of identification of the Ninth Karmapa, Wangchuk Dorje (karma pa 09 dbang phyug rdo rje, 1556-1601/1603), Pawo Tsuklak Trengwa organized the traditional enthronement ceremony at Tsurpu (tshur phu) the seat of Karmapas.

He was the author of the famous mkhas pa’i dga’ ston, A Scholar’s Feast, a history of Buddhism in India and its spread in Tibet, as well as the history of Tibet.  In 1565, a year before his death, he wrote a detailed commentary of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra (Wylie: gtsug lag ’grel chen). “

Scholar’s Banquet (Khepey Gaton)

Photo of the block print edition of A Scholar’s Feast

Scholar’s Banquet: Origin of Dharma (Chos ʼbyung mkhas pa’i dga’ ston) was compiled between around 1545 and 1564. presents a history of Buddhism in India and its diffusion in Tibet, along with a history of Tibet, itself. The title Khepe (mkhas pa’i) literally means ‘scholar’ or ‘expert’ and ‘gaton’ (dga’ ston) means ‘banquet’, ‘festival’ or ‘feast’. The text includes a transcript of the inscription on the Samye (bSam yas) pillar. Considering it’s major importance in Tibetan Buddhist textual history, Scholar’s Feast has had little been written about it in English. The only academic analysis I could find was Hugh Richardson’s article, The First Tibetan Chos-Byung[2]and an outline and some translated excerpts at the Tibetan Law Project (see below).

Editions of the Text

In terms of editions of the text, there are several. One first printed in Beijing, China in 1985 (printed again in 1986)[3] and a later one in 2006[4]. Another published in 2002 in New Delhi[5]. One reproduced from prints from the actual  Lho brag blocks from Rumtek Monastery, with the same page setting as the 1965 version[6].

Outline

This outline (taken from the Tibetan Law Project website) is based on the two-volume Beijing 1986 edition, as are the page numbers. The transliteration is based on the 1986 edition and the 1980 Delhi block print.

Section 1 How the doctrine was established generally in the world (ʼJig rten gyi khams spyir bstan pa), p. 5.

Section 2 Concerning India (rGya gar gyi skabs), p. 29.

Section 3 Concerning Tibet (Bod kyi skabs), p. 101.

Section 4 Concerning Khotan, old China, Minyak, Hor, and recent China (Li yul, rgya nag snga ma, mi nyag, hor, rgya nag phyi ma bcas kyi skabs), p. 1381.

Section 5 The five types of knowledge (Yul spyi dang shes bya’i gtso bo rig gnas lnga byung tshul), p. 1431.

Section 3: Concerning Tibet The titles of the sub-sections on the Tibetan royal chronicles below are suggested by the 2012 edition.

Chapter (1) How Avalokiteśvara became lord of Tibet (Thugs rje chen pos bdag gir mdzad tshul), p. 105. Chapter (2) The Tibetan royal chronicles (Bod kyi rgyal rabs), p. 149.

Part 1) How people arrived in Tibet

Part 2) The twelve petty kingdoms

Part 3) The seven sky kings (gnam gyi khri)

Part 4) The two upper realms

Part 5) The six beautiful lands and the eight middle realms

Part 6) The five emperors (btsan) of the lower realms

Part 7) King Songtsen Gampo (Srong btsan sgam po)

Part 8) King Mangsong Mangtsen (Mang srong mang btsan)

Part 9) King Dusong Mangpoje (’Dus srong mang po rje)

Part 10) King Tri De Tsugten (Khri lDe gtsug btsan) 3

Part 11) King Tri Song Detsen (Khri Srong lde btsan)

Part 12) King Mune Tsenpo (Mu ne btsan po)

Part 13) King Tri De Songtsen (Khri lDe srong btsan)

Part 14) King Tri Tsug Detsen Ralpachan (Khri gTsug lde btsan ral pa can)

Part 15) Namdé Oshung (gNam lde ’od srung) and Tri De Yumten (Khri lDe yum brtan)

Part 16) Concerning Lhasa and Samye

Chapter (3) The appearance of monastic discipline (ʼDul ba’i chos kyi byung ba), p. 465.

Chapter (4) The history of the translators and scholars (Lo pan chos ʼbyung), p. 509.

Chapter (5) The appearance of the Vajrayana Nyingma (gSang rnying ma’i chos kyi byung ba), p. 537. Chapter (6) The appearance of the Kadampa (bKa’ gdams kyi byung ba), p. 655.

Chapter (7) The appearance of the Kagyu, in general (bKa’ brgyud spyi’i chos kyi byung ba), p. 739.

Chapter (8) The appearance of the Karma Kamtsang (Karma kam tshang gi chos kyi byung ba), p. 859.

Chapter (9) The history of the Drigung Kagyu (ʼBri gung bka’ brgyud kyi rnam thar), p. 1337.

Chapter (10) The appearance of various religious lineages (Chos brgyud sna tshogs pa’i chos kyi byung pa), p. 1359.

Punishment for Heroes and Cowards

There is also a fascinating extract from the section on King Songtsan Gampo about the need to punish sins and shame the cowardly with ‘fox hats’ and reward ‘heroes’ with tiger skins (p.192):

“If cowards are not shamed with a fox hat,

Then heroes and cowards will not be differentiated;

If the bad are not scrutinized,

They will never endeavour to change their attitudes;

If sins are not punished,

People will continue to commit sins.

 If you harm your father and mother, who gave you life,

There will be great pain and suffering in the present and future;

If you harm your own son,

Outside, your enemies will uncover your deeds and words;

If you harm your family members, remote or close,

Husbandry and agriculture will diminish.

These are the three deeds, the three non-deeds, the three praises, the three shames, and the three non-harms. They are the fifteen renowned royal laws (rgyal khirms) [which ensure that] those who are heroic in battle are rewarded with the six emblems of heroism and those who are cowardly are shamed by wearing fox hats. So it is said[7].”

Sixteen Rules of Pure Human Conduct

There are clear ethical rules outlined that embrace the Buddhist ten virtues and of the importance of respect for parents, elders and honesty:

“Generally, in addition to rejecting the ten non-virtues: regard your mother as your mother, your father as your father, religious ascetics and brahmins as such; respect elders, repay kindness, and do not be deceitful towards others. These make up the sixteen pure rules of human conduct[8].”

Happiness of people in Tibet equal to the Gods

According to Richardson, the 2nd Pawo Rinpoche wrote some Concluding Verses himself in nine-syllable verse:

“Thus the eastern men of the grasslands and woodsmen, the barbarians (klo) and southerners (mon) from the south, the Zhang-zhung and Turks from the west and the Hor and Uighur from the north were gathered as subjects. [Srong-btsan Sgam-po] governed half of the world. The bliss and happiness [caused by] the firm law of the ten virtues was equal to that of the gods.

Likewise, after this the good, firm, all-benefiting law forcefully and truly bound [the subjects].

The wild animals comprised the king’s wealth, and goats, sheep, calves and so forth were left to the side.

Toll-posts (la-btsas) were built on the passes and boats crossed the great rivers. The lord’s firm orders pleased and gladdened the subjects.

The king’s polity increased like a lake in summer.

The males were brave, the horses fast, and the enjoyment equalled [that of] the gods.

 [They] put their trust in religion, and thus were happy.

Understanding everyone to be their parents, there were no disputes.

Reading and writing flourished, and thereby all people entered the religious way (chos la ‘jug).

The wicked and friendless found the jewel of the ten virtues.

Through the deeds of the incarnation [Srong-btsan Sgampo], there were no taxes or corvée labour.

The nectar of timely rainfall caused the various seeds to grow.

The leaves bloomed on the branches of all of the trees, and the birds sang carefree and melodious sounds.

The bliss and happiness of the people of the land of Tibet was equal to [that of] the gods[9].”

Nepal as the source of Buddhism in Tibet?

A few pages later, the text turns to the story of Songtsen Gampo’s missions to Nepal and China to seek brides. “Songtsen Gampo sends his minister, Gar (mGar), to Nepal, to ask the king for his daughter’s hand in marriage. The Nepalese king at first refuses, saying that he does not have marriage alliances with the Tibetans. However, he then asks whether Songtsen Gampo can establish Buddhism in Tibet. The Tibetan king sends a letter in reply:

The king of the barbarian Tibetans, Srong btsan sgam po, says to the king of Nepal, “You, in Nepal, to the south, have the doctrine (chos). I do not have either doctrine or religious practitioners. So if it pleases you to grant your daughter, then in one day I will create 5,000 19 bodily emanations and construct one hundred and eight temples, with all the doors facing towards Nepal, and there will be nothing more wonderful’. Then the king of Nepal said, ‘Ask him if he has the power to establish laws of the ten virtues’, and he entrusted the paper with the question to a silver casket. The reply came, ‘In that case, after having created the 5,000 emanations, in one day I will establish the laws of the ten virtues.’ Being a little afraid, he thought, ‘In order to appear profound, the Tibetan king seems to be boasting. Since the time of the Buddha Kāśyapa, we have had the resources of unceasing smoke from our stoves’. The Nepalese king then asks the minister about Tibet’s material wealth. He eventually agrees to give his daughter in marriage. After the queens of China and Nepal arrive in Lhasa, they establish temples and the religion flourishes[10].”

The compassion and bravery of the 5th Karmapa

Later on, the text also speaks about the bravery of the 5th Karmapa, Dezhin Shegpa (De bzhin gshegs pa, 1384–1415), and his influence on the then Chinese Ming emperor, Yongle.  Arriving at the Ming Imperial Court in 1406 and staying until 1408, the 5th Karmapa has considerable interaction with the emperor, persuading him not to be too harsh on other Buddhist sects. At one meeting, the Karmapa sits to the left of the emperor, in the place of honour, with three monastic 25 dignitaries to his left, the State Preceptor (go’i shri), a learned ritual master (slob dpon) and a great scholar. [p. 1009]

Then the three lamas were entrusted [by the emperor] with the work of the great go’i shri (State Preceptor), with a golden seal and a crystal document of authorization. About one thousand Chinese monks, who had committed crimes, had been put in prison and were in danger of dying. On the advice [of the Karmapa], they were rescued. On another occasion, he made forceful petitions on behalf of the criminals in prison in the great kingdom. On a third occasion, a widespread pronouncement was made known, that all the doctrinal traditions, such as Buddhists, Bonpos, and astrologers (zin shing), should each act according to their own traditions, and that none of their offering practices should harm anyone. When that was done, each headman said, ‘I understand that I will enact whatever the law (khrims lugs) is, as soon as it arrives’, and pronouncements and edicts (lung ’ja’ sa) to enhance the teachings were distributed throughout the whole kingdom[11].

Whatever the truth is regarding the history of Tibet, this text provides some fascinating insights. May the activities of the Karmapas and of the Pawo lineage flourish and prosper!

Written and compiled by Adele Tomlin, 29th October 2020.

Bibliography/Further Reading

  • Richardson, Hugh. “The First Tibetan Chos-Byung.”  The Tibet Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, 1980, pp. 62–73. JSTOR.
  • Dotson, Brandon. 2006. Administration and Law in the Tibetan Empire: The Section on Law and State and its Old Tibetan Antecedents. D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford. 2 [https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/3358/1/DotsonDPhil.pdf]
  • Uray, Geza. 1972. The Narrative of the Legislation and Organization of the Mkhas pa’i dga’ ston. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 26: 11–68.    
  • A Scholar’s Feast by 2nd Pawo Rinpoche, outline and excerpts on Tibetan Law Project.
  • Guru Yoga of Milarepa Shepa Dorje for Daily Practice by the Tenth Pawo Rinpoche.

[1] For more on the story of how a boy identified his previous life’s murderer and place where he was buried, see: https://www.reincarnationresearch.com/reincarnation-case-of-an-israeli-child-who-recalled-being-killed-with-an-ax-identifies-his-past-life-murderer-who-confesses/

[2] Richardson, Hugh. “The First Tibetan Chos-Byung.” The Tibet Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, 1980, pp. 62–73. JSTOR.

[3] dPa’ bo gtsug lag phreng ba. 1985. Dam pa’i chos kyi ʼkhor lo bsgyur ba rnams kyi byung ba gsal bar byed pa mkhas pa’i dga’ ston. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

dPa’ bo gtsug lag phreng bas brtsams. 1986. Dam pa’i chos kyi ʼkhor lo bsgyur ba rnams kyi byung ba gsal bar byed pa mkhas pa’i dga’ ston. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang. [This is a re-print of the 1985 edition]. TBRC: W7499

[4] dPa’ bo gtsug lag phreng ba. [2006] 2012. Chos ʼbyung mkhas pa’i dga’ ston. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang. [This work was published in identical form in 2006 and 2012].

[5] dPa’ bo gtsug lag phreng ba. 2002. Chos ʼbyung mkhas pa’i dga’ ston. Sarnath and Varanasi: Wa nga badzra bidya dpe mdzod khang. Mkhas pahi dgah ston by Dpah-bo-gtsug-lag ʼphreng-ba. 1965. Lokesh Chandra (ed.) New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture. (Śatapiṭaka Series no. 9 (4)).

[6] Chos ʼbyung mkhas pa’i dga’ ston: a detailed history of the development of Buddhism in India and Tibet by the Second Dpa’-bo of Gnas-nan, Gtsug-lag-ʼphreng-ba. 1980. Delhi: Delhi Karmapae Choday Gyalwae Sungrab Partun Khang. TBRC: W28792 [This is reproduced from prints from the Lho brag blocks from Rumtek Monastery, with the same page setting as the 1965 version]

[7] སྡར་མ་ཝ་ཞུས་མ་དམད་ན། །དཔའ་དང་སྡར་མ་ཤན་མི་ཕྱེད། །ངན་ལ་ནན་ཏུར་མ་བྱས་ན། །ནམ་ཡང་དྲན་ཤེས་རེམ་མི་འགྱུར། །ཉེས་ལ་ཆད་པ་མ་བཅད་ན། །ཕྱི་ནས་ཉེས་བྱེད་རྒྱུན་མི་ཆད། །ལུས་སྐྱེད་ཕ་མ་མནར་བ་ན། །འཕྲལ་ཕུགས་གཉིས་ཀར་ལ་ཡོགས་སྡིག །རང་གི་མཆན་གྱི་བུ་མནར་ན། །ཕྱི་རོལ་དགྲས་ཀྱང་ཞེ་ཁ་འབྱེད། །བཟའ་གྲོགས་མནར་ན་ཕྱི་ནང་གི །ཚུས་དང་སོ་ནམ་ཡལ་བར་འཆོར། །དེ་རྣམས་ལ་མཛད་པ་གསུམ་མི་མཛད་པ་གསུམ་བསོད་པ་གསུམ་དམད་པ་གསུམ་མི་མནར་བ་གསུམ་སྟེ་རྒྱལ་ཁྲིམས་བཅོ་ལྔར་གྲགས་ལ་གཡུལ་དུ་དཔའ་བ་ལ་དཔའ་མཚན་དྲུག་གིས་བསོད། སྡར་མ་ལ་ཝ་ཞུ་བཀོན་སྟེ་དམད་༼བསྐོན་ཏེ་ སྨད༽་སྐད།

[8]སྤྱིར་མི་དགེ་བ་བཅུ་སྤོང་བའི་སྟེང་དུ་མ་ལ་མར་འཛིན་པ་ཕ་ལ་ཕར་འཛིན་པ་དགེ་སོང་དང་ བྲམ་ཟེ་ལ་དགེ་སོང་དང་བྲམ་ཟེར་འཛིན་པ་རིགས་ཀྱི་རྒན་རབས་བཀུར་བ་བྱས་པ་དྲིན་དུ་གཟོ་བ་གཞན་ལ་ངན་གཡོ་སྤང་ བ་སྟེ་མི་ཆོས་གཙང་མ་བཅུ་དྲུག་ཁྲིམས་སུ་བཅས།

[9]དེ་ལྟར་ཤར་རྩ་མི་ཤིང་མི་ལྷོ་ནས་ཀློ་དང་མོན་ནུབ་ནས་ཞང་ཞུང་དང་གྲུ་གུ་བྱང་ནས་ཧོར་དང་ཡུ་གུར་རྨནས་འབངས་སུ་འདུས།་ཛམ་གླིང་གི་ཕྱེད་ལ་ཁ་ལོ་བསྒྱུར།་དགེ་བཅུའི་ཁྲིམས་བཙན་བདེ་སྐྱིད་ལྷ་དང་མཉམ་པ་ཡིན་ནོ།་།དེ་ལྟར་འདི་ཕྱི་ཀུན་ཏུ་ཕན་པ་ཡི།་།བཟང་པོའི་བཙན་ཁྲིམས་གཉན་ཤིང་དམ་པར་བསྡམས།་།རི་དགས་རྣམས་ནི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་དཀོར་ནོར་མཛད།་།རེ་ལུག་བེའུ་ལ་སོགས་རང་ཡན་གཏོང་།་།ལ་ལ་བཙས་བརྩིགས་ཆུ་ཆེན་གྲུ་ཡིས་བཅད།་།རྗེ་ཡི་བཀའ་བཙན་འབངས་རྣམས་བདེ་ཞིང་སྐྱིད།་།རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཆབ་སྲིད་དབྱར་གྱི་མཚོ་ལྟར་འཕེལ།་།ཕོ་དཔའ་རྟ་མགྱོགས་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ལྷ་དང་མཉམ།་།བློ་གཏད་ཆོས་ལ་བྱས་པས་འདི་ཕྱིར་སྐྱིད།་།ཐམས་ཅད་ཕ་མར་ཤེས་པས་ཐབ་རྩོད་མེད།་།བྲི་ཀློག་དར་བས་མི་ཀུན་ཆོས་ལ་འཇུག་།སྡིག་པའི་གྲོགས་མེད་དགེ་བཅུའི་ནོར་བུ་རྙེད།་།སྤྲུལ་པའི་མཛད་པས་ཁྲལ་དང་འུ་ལག་མེད།་།ཆར་ཆུ་དུས་འབབ་རྩི་བཅུད་འབྲུ་ཚོགས་འཕེལ།་།ལྗོན་ཤིང་ཐམས་ཅད་ཡལ་ག་ལོ་འདབ་རྒྱས།་།བྱ་རྣམས་བག་ཕེབས་སྙན་པའི་སྒྲ་དབྱངས་འབྱིན།་།བོད་ཡུལ་མི་རྣམས་བདེ་སྐྱིད་ལྷ་དང་མཚུངས། (KhG: 194; 22b, l. 7-23a, l. 4).

[10]མཐའ་འཁོབ་བོད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་སྲོང་བཙན་གྱིས་བལ་པོའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་ལ་བཀའ་བསྩལ་པ།ཁྱོད་ལྷོ་བལ་ན་ཆོས་ཡོད།ང་ལ་ཆོས་དང་མཆོད་གནས་མེད་དེ་དེ་ལ་དགའ་བས་ལྷ་གཅིག་སྟེར་ན་ངས་ཉིན་གཅིག་ལ་སྐུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་བཀོད་པ་ལྔ་སོང་སྤྲུལ་ནས་ལྷ་ཁང་བརྒྱ་རྩ་བརྒྱད་བརྩིགས་ཏེ་སྒོ་ཐམས་ཅད་བལ་པོའི་ཡུལ་དུ་བསན་ལ་བཞག་གིས་དེ་ངོ་མཚར་མི་ཆེའམ་བྱ་བ་བྱུང་། ཡང་བལ་རྗེ་ན་རེ་དགེ་བཅུའི་ཁྲིམས་འཆའ་ནུས་ན་བྱིན་གྱིས་དེ་དྲིས་ལ་ཤོག་ཟེར་བ་ལ་དངུལ་གྱི་སྒྲོམ་བུ་གཏད་པས། དེ་ལྟ་ན་སྐུ་ལུས་ཀྱི་བཀོད་པ་ལྔ་སོང་སྤྲུལ་ནས་ཉིན་གཅིག་ལ་དགེ་བཅུའི་ཁྲིམས་འཆའ་ཡི། ཟེར་བ་བྱུང་བ་ཅུང་ཟད་སྐྲག་སྟེ་སྟེར་བར་སེམས་ཀྱིས་བསམས་ཀྱང་ད་དུང་སྒམ་པོའི་ཕྱིར། བོད་རྒྱལ་ཁ་ཚོ་ཆེ་བར་འདུག་སྟེ་ང་སངས་རྒྱས་འོད་ སྲུང་ཚུན་ནས་ཐབ་དུ་བ་མ་ཆད་པའི་ལོངས་སོད་ཡོད་པ་ཡིན།

[11] བ་མ་རྣམ་གསུམ་ལ་གོའི་ཤྲི་ཆེན་པོའི་ལས་ཀ་གསེར་གྱི་ཐམ་ཀ་ཤེལ་གྱི་ཐོ་ཤུ་གནང་། རྒྱ་བན་སོང་ཙམ་གྱིས་ཉེས་པ་བྱས་ པའི་དོན་ལ་བཙོན་དུ་བཟུང་ནས་ཤི་བའི་ཉེན་འདུག་པ་ཞལ་ཏ་མཛད་དེ་སྲོག་བསྐྱབས། གཞན་ཡང་སྔ་རྟིང་དུ་རྒྱལ་ཁམས་ཆེན་པོར་ཡོད་པའི་ནག་ཅན་བཙོན་དུ་གང་ཡོད་ལ་ནན་ཆེར་ཞལ་ཏ་མཛད་པའི་དོན་དུ་སྔ་རྟིང་གསུམ་དུ་ཡངས་པའི་ལུང་ཤེས་བྱེད་བན་བོན་ཟིན་ཤིང་སོགས་ཆོས་ལུགས་སོ་སོ་ཐམས་ཅད་རང་རང་གི་ལུགས་ཚུལ་བཞིན་དུ་གྱིས་གནམ་མཆོད་འདི་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་སུས་ཀྱང་བཙེར་བ་མ་བྱེད།བྱས་ན་སོ་སོའི་རྒན་པས་ངེད་ལ་འཕྲལ་དུ་གཏུགས་ཁྲིམས་ལུགས་ཇི་ལྟར་ བྱེད་པ་ངེད་ཀྱིས་ཤེས་ཞེས་སོགས་བསན་པ་ཤེད་སྐྱེད་ཀྱི་ལུང་འཇའ་ས་རྒྱལ་ཁམས་ཐམས་ཅད་དུ་གནང།

10 thoughts on “‘Scholars’ Banquet’ and the ‘Hero’ (Pawo) lineage

      1. Yes , it is the one:) As far as remember in ,, Book of living and dying ,, by Sogyal Rinpoche there is story of late Pawo Rinpoche meeting with Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche and Dalai Lama ? in France , at one Dharma Centre and they did notice insect walking across room floor and asked assistants to take the insect into safe place outdoor to avoid to trample it .Concerning educational restrictions of present Pawo Rinpoche, worthy to notice that young reincarnation of Panchen Lama ( second highest rank lama in Geluk order after Dalai Lama ) just disappeared several years ago and nobody knows where is he. Pls keep writing your articles, they are amazing.

  1. Hello Adele,
    Just to let you know I posted a comment on your piece about the Pawo Rinpoche lineage and received this unusual notice from WordPress:

    Howdy!

    We ran into a problem with your recent comment reply by email. Specifically, we weren’t able to find your comment in the email.

    We’ll do our best to get this fixed up. In the meantime, you may want to comment directly on the post:

    https://dakinitranslations.com/2020/10/29/scholars-banquet-and-the-hero-pawo-lineage/

  2. Thank you Adele for sharing the fruits of your research on the Pawo Rinpoches – a Lineage that is viewed with the utmost awe and respect by many Tibetans. Your piece mentions “a monk from Nenang” who aided His Holiness Karmapa in his escape from Tibet in 2000. This monk you mentioned in passing was actually the greatly respected Tsewang Rinpoche who was appointed as Abbot of Nenang Monastery at the request of none other than the then living His Eminence the Tenth Kyabje Pawo Rinpoche. Years later the Venerable Tsewang Rinpoche was appointed by His Holiness Karmapa to lead the secret search for the reincarnation of the late Kyabje Pawo Rinpoche. The yangsi was found and later enthroned at his main seat, Nenang Monastery. Due to his tireless efforts in rebuilding the 600 year old Nenang Monastery as well as establishing a new retreat centre, a shedra, an orphanage and building up the Sangha in general this exceptional monk was granted the honorific title of Nenang Lama.

    Furthermore, as a result of this “significant and extraordinary appointment” Tsewang Rinpoche found himself almost a decade later, in concert with Karmapa’s trusted Tsurphu confidante Lama Nyima, to be in a unique position to secretly plan and organise the successful escape of His Holiness Karmapa to India in the year 2000. Rinpoche escaped along with His Holiness while Lama Nyima, who remained behind, was confined to prison by his captors. The latter since his release has gone on to live a life of seclusion in retreat whereas the ‘Nenang Lama’ has continued to expand his Dharma activities since moving to live in the United States in 2002. He has since established the Danang Foundation in 2006 and later in 2010 the Tibetan Buddhist Centre in Flushing, New York from where he unceasingly engages in Dharmic activities with the same diligence and humility as displayed whilst risking his life in service to the Pawo Lineage and His Holiness Karmapa back in Tibet.

    Rinpoche is a genuine Real True Lama from another era, “old school” as they say, not many of whom are left with us in our world today. Here is the link to his website which has some lovely photos:

    http://www.danangfoundation.com/tsewang-rinpoche/

    * * * *
    Adele, in regard to your recent email about sexual use and abuse by High Lamas I must say I am still somewhat in shock and reeling from the deadly serious wider implications. As a seasoned witness and survivor of abuse in some of the higher echelons of the Irish Catholic church – having been formally excommunicated over fifty years ago at the tender age of eighteen, with my mother as witness in the presence of the Archbishop seated in full regalia on his throne – I can assure you I am highly sensitised and sympathetic to anyone who has been subjected to the absolute horror of broken spiritual trust or Samaya as well as the other grosser, reprehensible forms of physical sex abuse, torture and even worse.

    “Plus ca change, plus c’est la meme chose . . .”

    Regards,

    Paul

    1. Hello Paul! Thanks so much for that crucial information, I will certainly update the post to include it. I will also forward the article to the Danang Foundation.

      Regarding your last paragraph, yes it is a ‘deadly serious’ matter on a dualistic level for sure, and no doubt has probably effected billions of sentient beings. They say that if a teacher burns the seed of liberation in one sentient being it is one of the worst things they can do because human beings interested in enlightenment and with bodhicitta are SO rare!!

      I am very sorry to hear about your own experience of religious clergy abuse. I think it is worse than abuse by ordinary beings because people look to religious teachers and leaders as a source of refuge, protection, love and wisdom. If all they find there is hate, abuse, exploitation, no compassion etc. then it’s a very sad state of affairs indeed and turns nectar into poison. Of course, Buddha Nature and the Dharma are unstained by it all but most beings may not have that level of confidence or strength to know that. That’s why when religious or spiritual people act in these ways, with people they may have only just met, it is ‘evil’ and needs to be exposed and stopped. HH Dalai Lama has said so. If they show no signs of changing, taking accountability and worse act unethically to try and silence survivors then the only option left is full public exposure. I have not yet gone that route for many reasons, but I do hope that things will change for the better by keeping up the pressure privately. It’s got nothing to do with Vajrayana or Buddha Dharma at all, the foundation of which is love, compassion and wisdom for ALL beings. A teacher should never expect a person to be Milarepa etc. until and unless the student has fully accepted them as their teacher and vice versa. There are too many excuses used by people in Vajrayana circles to justify and excuse unethical and abusive conduct but I think things are changing for the better.

      Thanks so much for your kind interest and support for the Dharma and my work on this website! Wishing you happiness, health and enlightenment!

  3. Hi Adele, did you ever hear about the crown/hat of the Pawo Tulkus? It is supposed to be multi-coloured (natshog)? Did you ever see a picture of it?

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s